Feb 17 2008

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Biofuel: A Short Review

Ethanol, as in beer and wine, is an alcohol modified to utilize it as a fuel and making it undrinkable. Ethanol is produced by fermentation through a method similar to beer brewing of any biomass containing carbohydrates. At the present time, ethanol is derived from starches and sugars however there have been constant research to allow it to be produced from fibrous substance which consists the bulk of most plant matter – the cellulose and hemicellulose. Ethanol is widely used as a blending agent with gasoline to boost octane and at the same time reducing carbon monoxide and other toxic smog-causing emissions.

In contrast to other renewable energy resources, biomass, an organic material, can be converted directly into burnable fuels, termed as “biofuels,” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands. The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel.

On the other hand, biodiesel is produced by the combination of alcohol which is usually alcohol with vegetable or animal oil/fats, or recycled cooking grease. In order to lessen harmful vehicle emissions, it can be utilized on its pure form or as an additive (normally 20%) as a renewable substitute fuel for diesel engines.

Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean, grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available, renewable resources, for the most phase using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. This can make biofuels an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically.

Cleaner burning energy sources lessen the toxic pollutant emissions produced by burning gasoline, and it cuts down on the dumping of used oil. Another gain is that many alternative fuels can be generated, while oil is a non-renewable resource. Demand varies, and there is always the possibility of discovering new reserves. In the contrary, fact remains that the supply may well run out one day. Present estimates predict that world oil production will reach its peak some time in the next 10 to 15 years. It thus makes sense to search for new alternatives before that day arrives. In addition, a much-hyped reason is that lessening dependence on oil will, in turn, reduce dependence on unreliable foreign oil.

Biofuel is made from agricultural crops developed in the different parts of the United States and other countries as well. Increased utilization of biofuel can generate new markets for American products. A number of jobs can also be produces especially in rural communities. As a result, it can keep the money circulating all the way through the domestic economy. Moreover, it promotes American energy independence just by generating a percentage of our fuel at home.

More importantly, biofuel is capable of improving the performance of your engine. Biofuel is a “quality” fuel that cleans your fuel system, increasing octane and lessening harmful emissions, all of which help to lengthen the life of your vehicle. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel fuel, biofuel is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers.

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Jan 21 2008

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Biofuel and Its New Developments

Among the most promising replacement for nonrenewable fossil fuel (petroleum, coal, etc) are fuels made from organic materials, the so-called “biofuels”. The two widely used biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Each has its own pros and cons. However, the present technologies result in limitation of production for the reason that not all parts of a certain plant can be used.

Due to this drawback, there has been lot of studies that would resolve this problem. This is where the so-called second generation of biofuel enters. This so-called second generation denotes non food crops (cellulosic biofuel) such as waste biomass, wood, etc.

To briefly differentiate second from first generation, First generation biofuel are those fuel derived from vegetable or animal fats/oils, starch or sugar with the use of modern technology. Proponents claims that increasing industrial and political support for this second generation biofuel is a more feasible solution to achieve efficient fuel production utilizing a much greater range of plants and its waste.

Cellulose ethanol production is newly discovered experimental processes which can breakdown cellulose in woody fibers. This would only mean that through this method, ethanol from crop wastes, trees and grasses can be derived. It is significantly better since trees and grasses require small amount of energy in comparison to grains that must be replanted annually. Moreover, there have been techniques to develop fast-growing trees that can grow to size in just 10 years. In addition, grasses can be harvested twice every year.

In cellulosic ethanol, the fuel is derived from the stems and stalks of plants rather than only using the sugars and starches from corns, as with corn ethanol, This is starting to gain interest in the United States. As a matter of fact, several companies are moving forward having plans to build plants using this method.

This new type of biofuel is gradually gaining popularity because of the feedstock such as wood chips and grasses that is cost effective and very abundant. During the conversion into ethanol, less fossil fuel is required, therefore, having a greater impact than the usual corn ethanol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Moreover, in comparison between the land area of grasses and corn, there is no doubt that an acre of grasses could make twice the number of gallons of ethanol that can be generated with an acre of corn. This is because in cellulose ethanol, the entire plant can be utilized instead of just the grain as in corn ethanol. This is great news for those regions having a short supply of corn-based food that is competing with the corn-ethanol manufacturers.

Based on the report made by the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), by year 2050, the increasing productivity of cellulosic sources would in due course allow them to generate as much as 150 billion gallons of ethanol which is comparable to more than two-thirds present gasoline consumption in the United States.At the present time in the United States, none of the ethanol is derived from cellulosic materials. This is according to ethanol industry’s list of producers in the United States.

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Dec 15 2007

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The Pros and Cons of Biofuels

There have been studies that prove the many benefits of substituting fossil fuels (petroleum, etc) with biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. In its simplest sense, such biofuels are biodegradable which means they are derived from organic materials. They are naturally renewable. It can create numerous jobs since our own farmers can practically make them domestically. Consequently, our reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced. Moreover, these biofuels emit nontoxic and cleaner emissions in comparison to traditional fuels. These alternative fuels also do not promote global warming, since the carbon they emit is taken back to the environment.

Biofuels are easily utilize but not readily accessible.

The use of biofuel is not complicated. Compared to other forms of renewable energy (solar, wind, etc), biofuel is far more simple and easy to use. It does not require special equipment or a modification in all engines. Any automobile will not need complex changes. The biodiesel can be readily combined with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time. In some instances, particularly true for ethanol, you may have to look for flexible fuel car models. If not, biodiesel can run most diesel operated engines.

Despite these benefits, it would take time for biofuels to be readily accessible due to lack of ethanol or biodiesel pumps at existing filling station.

Biofuels are renewable but crops are still not enough.

It is a fact that biofuels are derived from biomass that is renewable and biodegradable. For this reason, it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come.

However, one major concern of wide scale biofuel production is the increased need of growing crops to meet the demand. This leads to some arguments, since it might require extensive land that may involve forests, wild habitats and agricultural lands.

Biofuels uses more energy than they can produce.

This had been an issue in so many years whether producing biofuels would actually need more energy than they can give.

Over the years, technology has significantly improved. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. Ethanol puts out about 1.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used in processing it. In addition, biodiesel even has an output of 3.2 units of energy to every unit of energy used on its production. The “traditional” fuel like gasoline needs 20% energy based on what it can provide, or leaving you with only 80%.

Conclusion

To reduce the reliance on fossil fuel, conservation is still the primary strategy. There is no instant weaning on conventional petroleum diesel. It is quite impossible to totally replace it but instead the consumption must be decreased. Other sources of energy such as solar, wind, etc. are still needed. But this does not mean that biofuel have no future. As a matter of fact, it has a very promising potential. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel or gasoline fuel, it is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers.

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Nov 19 2007

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Ethanol and Biodiesel: A Biofuel Comparison

The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Just a brief review, ethanol is an alcohol fuel derived from sugarcane, wheat, corn and biomass, thus including wasted cooking oil. It can be blended with conventional petroleum diesel to improve its octane level resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, biodiesel is made from natural oils such as animal fats or vegetable oils.

Presently, experts states that the main biofuels, ethanol and biodiesel, have a positive effect to the environment. Each of them has its pros and cons. The utilization of both ethanol and biodiesel will result to a decrease reliance on foreign conventional fossil fuels and a reduction on harmful, toxic emissions.

There are various methods to compare ethanol and biodiesel. Below are some of them.

Process

The two processes that can generate fuel-grade ethanol are wet milling and dry milling. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. In it simplest explanation, yeast, sugars and starch are fermented. From starch, it is fermented into sugar, afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol.

Biodiesel is produced through a chemical process termed as transesterification. In this method, the two byproducts, methyl esters and glycerin which are not good for engines, are left behind.

Environmental Benefit

Both biofuels can reduce harmful emissions. Both biodiesel and ethanol could provide significant environmental benefit. The two have a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that these biofuels are primarily derived from crops which absorb carbon dioxide. Thus, the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere.

Compatibility

Biodiesel can run in any diesel generated engines. However, it is not yet clear if it is the same when using 100% ethanol since it is recommended to be blended with fossil fuel like gasoline. Therefore, it is only compatible with selected gasoline powered automobiles. In the United States, almost all ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline.

Costs

Currently, commercial biodiesel is more expensive than ethanol.

Gallons per acre

In the perspective of land use and agricultural efficiency, ethanol seems to be a good choice. The reason is that about 420 gallons of ethanol can be generated per acre in contrast to 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre soybeans. Consequently, the cost of soybean oil would significantly increase if biodiesel production is increased as well.

Energy

Many reports stated that biodiesel provides 93% more net energy per gallon than is necessary for its manufacture. On the other hand ethanol produces only 25% more net energy.

Greenhouse-gas Emissions (GHG)

The production and combustion of ethanol ends in 12% less greenhouse gas emission than the production and combustion of regular diesel. On the other hand, the generation and combustion of biodiesel from soybeans results in 41% diminution compared to conventional gasoline.

Stated above are some of the many facts about ethanol and biodiesel with the end view of comparing the two biofuels on which one is better. The pursuit to lessen our reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels will not be realized with a single alternative fuel. It necessitates a blend of ethanol, biodiesel and perhaps some yet-to-be discovered alternative fuel.

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Oct 06 2007

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Uncovering a Biofuel: Ethanol

Ethanol is alcohol fuel derived from sugars found in crops such as rice, potato skins and sugarcane and it is commonly made from corn, sorghum and wheat. Corn is commonly the base material in the United States due to its affordability and availability. But in Brazil, sugarcane is widely used. Since it is produced from plants, it is considered biodegradable and renewable. It is definitely a clear, colorless alternative alcohol fuel. Presently, various methods are used in making ethanol from biomass – an organic material. The fermentation of sugars and starch in corn with the use of yeast is the most frequently method utilized. From starch, it is fermented into sugar, afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol.

A variety of procedures can generate fuel-grade ethanol. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. Below is the brief step by step process.

1. Let the base organic material (corn, sugarcane, wheat, etc) pass through a grinding meal to pulverize the selected material.

2. Then, liquefy it by placing the blend of water, grain powder and an enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of the grain compound into a high-heat cooker.

3. Cool it afterwards. Add another enzyme that will facilitate the conversion of starch into sugars which are then fermented, producing alcohol from the cooled mash.

4. Start the fermentation by adding yeast to the sugar mixture. The sugars will be broken down to ethanol (a form of alcohol) and carbon dioxide.

5. Distill the fermented mixture in order for the ethanol to separate from the solids.

6. Get rid of the water from the separated ethanol through a dehydration process.

7. To make it undrinkable, add a small amount of gasoline. The ethanol should be non potable to be used as an alternative fuel.

The carbon dioxide and distiller grain which are both byproducts of this method can be use in the ranching and farming industry. Ethanol-producing plant also buys these by-products for a variety of purposes.

Utilizing ethanol means using less of the nonrenewable fuel to produce gasoline. Ethanol is safe, nontoxic and biodegradable. It is not detrimental if accidentally spilled because it breaks down very quickly. It is considered clean for the main reason that it lessens toxic pollutants such as carbon monoxide from the pipelines of vehicles. It does not require lead or other derivatives to keep the engine running smoothly. It has a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that biodiesel is primarily derived from crops which absorbs carbon dioxide. Thus, the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere.

On another note, ethanol as a transportation fuel can be utilized as a partial or total alternative for conventional petroleum diesel. For urban regions that don’t meet the standards of a clean air, gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) is utilized. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines. In the United States, almost 99% of ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline to make E10.

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Sep 14 2007

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Biodiesel: In Depth

A type of biofuel that is now frequently used is biodiesel. Considered to be biodegradable and nontoxic, biodiesel is primarily produced from a chemical reaction of alcohol (commonly methanol) and a wide range of fats which include vegetable or animal oils and plant extracts such as corn, soybean, canola, and sunflowers. This reaction gets rid of the by-product glycerin which is not suitable for the engines through a refinery process termed as transesterification. The glycerin that is removed in turn can be made into soaps. During the transesterification process, other byproducts such as methyl esters are also left behind. Biodiesel is then free from such materials as sulfur and aromatics which are contained in traditional fuels that in turn will substantially facilitate in the reduction of harmful emissions from diesel-fed engines.

It is a renewable, cleaner-burning alternative for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It can be used in unmodified engines – be it a car, bus, truck, boat, construction equipment, generator or oil home heating units. Since it is primarily derived from plants and animals, the supply can be replenished by means of farming and recycling.

In addition, it also one of the most thoroughly tested substitute fuels on the market. Tests have verified that even though it operates in a similar manner to conventional diesel, biodiesel is way better for the environment. Since it does not produce detrimental consequences to the environment, it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come.

Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. It is most often blended with traditional diesel fuel at any level to lessen automobile emissions. When biodiesel is mixed with petroleum diesel, it yields a fuel which is compatible with diesel engines, shifts imported petroleum and decrease toxic emissions. A combination of 20% bio- and 80%- conventional diesel will considerably lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can aggravate global warming. Lower-level biodiesel blends, such as 2% bio- and 98% diesel or 5% bio- and 95% diesel, are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by drivers as they become more aware of the many advantages. It can be safely utilized in any compression-ignition engine, may it light-duty or heavy-duty engines, designed to be ran on traditional fuel on the condition that it meets the given standards that can be checked on the manufacturer’s recommendations and information.

The ultimate target of the biodiesel industry is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. However, its main goal is to broaden its usefulness, efficacy and worth. As one of numerous alternative fuels, biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy. The contribution to the sustainability and cleanliness of diesel engines has been one of the focuses of biodiesel production. Biodiesel is a ground-breaking fuel that is rapidly becoming more available to the general community. It can be seen around the country in selected areas or it can be purchased directly from manufacturers. It may rate a little more expensive than conventional fuels at the present time due to the demand that is not as great. Nevertheless, as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable, renewable fuel source, the price will eventually drop.

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Aug 28 2007

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Why Choose Biodiesel?

How It Works

To generate biodiesel, the raw oil is subjected to a process called “transesterification.” This refining method uses of an industrial alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and a catalyst (substance that speeds up the chemical reaction) resulting to a conversion of the oil into a fatty-acid methyl-ester fuel (biodiesel).

It can be utilized in single pure form however it may require engine alterations to avoid maintenance and performance troubles. It is most commonly mixed with conventional petroleum diesel fuel at any level to reduce detrimental automobile emissions. When biodiesel is combined with petroleum diesel, it brings in a fuel that is compatible with diesel engines, reduce imported petroleum needs and decrease toxic emissions. A combination of 20% bio- and 80%- conventional diesel will greatly lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can worsen global warming. Lower-level biodiesel blends, such as 2% bio- and 98% diesel or 5% bio- and 95% diesel, are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by the public as they become more aware of the many benefits.

Definition

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from farm products such as vegetable or animal oils, fats, or recycled cooking greases. Almost all biodiesels are derived from soybean oil; however sunflower oil, canola oil, recycled vegetable oils, and animal fats can also be used in the United States.

A Safe and Clean Fuel

• Cleaner Emissions – The use of biodiesel lessens greenhouse emissions because carbon dioxide that is released from the combustion of biodiesel is neutralize by the carbon dioxide utilized while growing the feedstock.

• Non-hazardous – In terms of toxicity, biodiesel is the best alternative that has proven to be safe and not harmful to the environment. Various tests verified that biodiesel is biodegradable and nontoxic that poses no threat to human health.

• Simple – The automobile need not any complex modification or conversion. The biodiesel can be readily blended with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time.

• Renewable – Biodiesel is derived from 85% vegetable or animal oils/fats which are renewable sources.

• Sustainable – Aside from it biodegradability, biodiesel is also renewable in contrast to scarce fossil fuel use which is formed from the remnants of animals and plants that have lain in the earth for millions of years.

• Nonflammable – In contrast to gasoline which ignites immediately at any lower temperature, biodiesel will only ignite at a very high temperature.

• Appropriate for Your Engine – A number of tests reveal that biodiesel is more lubricating than any conventional diesel to both the fuel injection pump and engine.

• Available – Currently in the United States, there are roughly 600 fleets that use biodiesel blends in their diesel engines. Moreover, various blends of biodiesel at approximately 800 areas are available nationwide.

• Affordable – The geographic area, base organic material (soybean, corn, etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. It varies depending on the said determinants. It does not also require purchasing new vehicles to shift from conventional diesel to biodiesel. On the side of the fleets, acquisitions of new spare parts supply or rebuilding stations need not to be done by the manager.

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Jul 22 2007

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Precautionary Measures in Using Biodiesel in Your Engines

One of the main biofuels which is biodiesel is now widely used in the United States, Canada, Thailand, and many countries in Europe. Since it turns out to be increasingly common and generally used by the public as they become more knowledgeable of the positive effects, it is advisable to consult the manufacturer’s recommendations and information about the use of biodiesel. Here are some of the important considerations in utilizing biodiesel in your engines.

Rubber Seals and Hoses

Almost all pre – 1994 automobiles and several later model vehicles have fuel lines that are not compatible with biodiesel. These rubber fuel system components, such as hoses and pump seals will be gradually degraded with the utilization of biodiesel. Before they will entirely ruin, it will first become supple or spongy. Thus, once in a while check under your hood and replace with a biodiesel resistant synthetic any ruined fuel lines and seals

Fuel Filter Clogging

Biodiesel can liberate deposits mounted up on pipes and tank walls from previous traditional diesel fuel, thus primarily causing fuel filter clogs when used for the first time. Power loss is an indication of fuel filter clogging. Vehicle owners must change the filter shortly after trying on a full tank of biodiesel. It is suggested to carry an extra fuel filter in your car, know how to change it and be prepared at all times.

Paint

The paint on your automobile may dissolve with the use of biodiesel in due course. This incident can be prevented by immediately wiping off or washing with small amount of soap and water.

Cold Weather

Depending on the type of fat sources it was derived from, at around 32°F or higher, biodiesel crystallizes. The vehicle will not start when biodiesel freezes your fuel system and injection pump. This however may not cause damage, warming up the vehicle helps. Fuel containers can be stored in warm places. If no indoor parking is available, the car should be parked where sunlight can hit it, else park it indoors. In regions with colder climates, crystallization can be prevented with adding of heating elements or insulation to the fuel systems. If experiencing power loss, immediately replace your fuel filter. A blow-dryer can also be aimed at the fuel filter and lines. Pouring hot water can also be done but be sure to avoid wetting the electrical components.

Uninformed Mechanics

Mechanics that are not knowledgeable and familiar with biodiesel might misdiagnosed not related problems as being brought about by biodiesel and perform “repairs” in the fuel system that are not necessary and expensive. It is better to look and locate for the nearest biodiesel-friendly mechanic before actually needing one. A second opinion from an expert mechanic is also suggested before permitting any expensive repairs to be done.

Overall, the utilization of biodiesel can not be the primary reason for maintenance issues and concerns. A lot of newer vehicles have compatible components that will accept biofuels readily. Nevertheless it is still best to check your owner’s manual or consult your vehicle manufacturers for recommendations and more specific information.

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Mar 11 2007

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Misconceptions on Biofuel

Misconception # 1: Biofuel generates a small amount of energy than it takes to produce them.

Fact: Over the years, technology has significantly improved. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. Ethanol gives about 1.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used. In addition, biodiesel even provides 3.2 units of energy to every unit of energy used. As a matter of fact, “traditional” fuel (gasoline) uses 20% more energy to make it than it provides or converts.

Misconception # 2: Biofuel brings about food shortage.

Fact: There is more than enough food to cater to the general public. If there are billions of people who suffer starvation in different parts of the world, that is not primarily because there is not enough food. Sufficient amount of food exist than there has ever been before. The main reason why people starve is not because of biofuel production but because of inequitable economic system.

Misconception # 3: Modification of all engines is a must in using Biofuel.

Fact: This is not true for all. In biodiesel for example, it can be used in unmodified engines – be it a car, bus, truck, boat, construction equipment, generator or oil home heating units. Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. On another note, gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) can also be used. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines.

Misconception # 4: Biofuel must be subsidized to be affordable.

Fact: The geographic area, base organic material (soybean, corn, etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. It varies depending on the said determinants. It may rate a little more expensive than traditional fuels at the current time due to the demand that is not as great. Nevertheless, as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable, renewable fuel source, the price will eventually drop.

Misconception # 5: Biofuels will completely replace conventional fuel.

Fact: The ultimate target of the biofuel manufacturing is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. However, its main goal is to broaden its usefulness, efficacy and worth. As one of numerous alternative fuels, biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy.

Reality: At the present time, biofuels are the best alternatives to fossil fuels which are nonrenewable. Not only traditional petroleum fuel is far more expensive, it is also damaging our environment. Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean, grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available, renewable resources, most of the time using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. This can make biofuel an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. It can create jobs and help boost the economy as well.

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Jan 24 2007

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Biofuel and the Controversies

There have been many efforts to generate unlimited and renewable source of fuel. This is where biofuel production comes in. It has been believed to be the sole answer for the world’s global warming and energy crisis. In contrast to other renewable energy resources, biomass – an organic material, can be converted directly into burnable fuels, termed as “biofuels,” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands.

In the contemporary years, the biofuel industry is gaining impetus to promote a cleaner environment, improve new economic prospect for the agriculture industry and eventually reduce reliance on crude oil as a feedstock for gasoline. However there are a lot of controversies that arises from biofuel production and use.

Issue # 1: Is it really environmental friendly?It is known that biofuel chief benefit is the reduction of harmful greenhouse gas emission because of the fact that these biofuel is primarily derived from crops which can absorb carbon dioxide. Thus, the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. However, looking at the entire process, from clearing the field to its consumption, the considerable reduced emission from the utilization of biofuel is overshadowed by far greater emissions that result from burning, deforestation, etc.

Issue # 2: Does it not really affect food supply?One of the prime criticisms is usually directed against large-scale biofuel production. It is believed to redirect agricultural production away from food crops. It is especially not good in developing countries.

The central dispute is that biofuel production will compete with food supply in numerous ways. Consequently, this fight over rural investment, agricultural, infrastructure, water, fertilizers, human resource, etc. will cause food shortages and price increase.

Issue # 3: Does it not affect a considerable amount of land and water?It is a fact that biofuel production necessitates growing biomass such as crops which in turn require a massive amount of land and water. It is particularly alarming in regions known to have scarcity of water. Manufacturing biofuel would only worsen water problem.

We can’t deny the fact that in other parts of the world, water limits are becoming more severe. The presence of large-scale biofuels would greatly need enormous amount of water. This would only result to further reduction of water availability.

Issue # 4: does it not involve destruction of wild habitats?As stated above, manufacturing biofuel would necessitate growing biomass which requires large agricultural lands. Consequently, in some countries, the incidence of deforestation is alarmingly increasing as croplands are being created. It does not only destroy wild habitats but also increase carbon dioxide that is emitted when forests are burnt. The home occupied by indigenous people, subsistence farmers and endangered species is in reality affected by this land clearing for growing biomass.

The issues presented above are indeed hot topics that need to be clarified and answered. These controversies would result to a much continual and thorough studies and research that would greatly benefit not only the government but the public itself.

But despite of these uncertainties, biofuel is now widely used in different countries including United States, Brazil and some countries in Europe because it poses a very good potential as an alternative fuel.

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